Interest rates and interest rate expectations have increased in 2022 due to high and rising inflation. One sector that is vulnerable to rising interest rates is the commercial real estate sector. FI has also noted that liquidity on the bond markets has decreased, and the functionality of the corporate bond market is once again impaired.
Unsound lending practices and commission from the sale of financial instruments are the highest prioritised risks in Finansinspektionen’s (FI) consumer protection assignment for 2022.
In this FI Analysis, we study how the risk weight floor has impacted the banks’ lending to CRE firms using detailed lending data. The aim is to analyse whether the risk weight floor impacted the banks’ interest margins and the risk in their lending. We also investigate how the volume of bank loans and bonds to CRE firms has changed before and after the introduction of the risk weight floor.
Swedish households continue to take increasingly larger loans. More new mortgagors than in previous years had both a high loan-to-income ratio and a high loan-to-value ratio. Higher inflation and rising interest rates mean that mortgagors have smaller margins in their personal finances. This decreases the consumption capacity at the same time as the mortgagors’ ability to repay their loan is impaired.
FI has conducted an investigation into a number of credit institutions’ exposures, risk measurement and management of counterparty risk and credit valuation adjustment (CVA) risk related to positions in financial derivatives.
There are different types of lenders. They offer different types of loans, and their risk tolerance varies. The risk tolerance is evident in their business model, which consists in part of how they conduct their credit assessment. There are also different types of borrowers. Some want small loans, and others want big loans. Both the lender’s credit assessment and the borrower’s repayment capacity are often better for large loans. The small loans represent a large share of early repayment problems – reminders and collection notices. But the borrower can often pay back small loans before they are registered with the Swedish Enforcement Authority.
Sweden’s economy has largely recovered and there is good access to financing in the financial system. The Riksbank should therefore begin the phase-out of asset purchasing to avoid further increase of risk-taking. Amongst others, FI sees growing risks within the commercial real estate companies.
One of Finansinspektionen’s (FI) assignments is to promote a high level of protection for consumers on the financial markets. FI does this in part by conducting an annual survey of new consumer credit. The survey helps enhance our understanding of consumer credit and the risks it entails for borrowers. Loans and loan service payments have a major impact on household finances. For a borrower with an average income that takes out a large consumer credit, the monthly payment for the interest and amortisation payments can correspond to the payment of a significantly larger mortgage.
Since 2010, FI has implemented a number of macroprudential measures aimed at increasing the resilience in the financial system and subduing the risks associated with high and rising household debt. These measures include tightening the capital requirements on banks and introducing a mortgage cap and two amortisation requirements. In this report, we present an overall assessment of these measures, with a focus on the measures that, via lenders, place restrictions on households’ mortgage borrowing.
The temporary amortisation exemption resulted in new mortgagors borrowing almost 4 per cent more and buying homes that were approximately 1 per cent more expensive, concludes a new FI Analysis.